## Retention methods in exploratory factor analysis (EFA)

Retention methods in exploratory factor analysis (EFA) involve determining how many factors to retain from the initial factor extraction. The goal is to identify a meaningful and interpretable number of factors that adequately represent the underlying structure of the observed variables. Several common retention methods are used for this purpose: Kaiser’s Criterion: Proposed by Kaiser, […]

## Distribution Shapes

Distribution Shapes When one is describing data, it is important to be able to recognize the shapes of the distribution values. In later chapters, you will see that the shape of a distribution also determines the appropriate statistical methods used to analyze the data.A distribution can have many shapes, and one method of analyzing a […]

## What is an Ogive – Definition and Examples

What is an Ogive – Definition and Examples The third type of graph that can be used represents the cumulative frequencies for the classes. This type of graph is called the cumulative frequency graph, or ogive. The cumulative frequency is the sum of the frequencies accumulated up to the upper boundary of a class in […]

## What is a Frequency Polygon – Definition and Examples

What is a Frequency Polygon – Definition and Example Another way to represent the same data set is by using a frequency polygon.The frequency polygon is a graph that displays the data by using lines that connect points plotted for the frequencies at the midpoints of the classes. The frequencies are represented by the heights […]

## What is a Histogram – Meaning and Examples

The Histogram The histogram is a graph that displays the data by using contiguous vertical bars (unless the frequency of a class is 0) of various heights to represent the frequencies of the classes. Construct a histogram to represent the data shown for the record high temperatures for each of the 50 states (see Example […]

## Unbiased Sampling Techniques – random, systematic, stratified, and cluster sampling.

To obtain samples that are unbiased—i.e., that give each subject in the population an equally likely chance of being selected—statisticians use four basic methods of sampling: random, systematic, stratified, and cluster sampling. Random Sampling   Random samples are selected by using chance methods or random numbers. One such method is to number each subject in […]

## Types of Measurement Scales – Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio

How variables are categorized, counted, or measured—uses measurement scales, and four common types of scales are used: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. The first level of measurement is called the nominal level of measurement. A sample of college instructors classified according to subject taught (e.g., English, history, psychology, or mathematics) is an example of nominal-level […]

## Type of Variables (Quantitative Vs Qualitative)

Variables can be classified as qualitative orquantitative. Qualitative variables arevariables that can be placed into distinct categories, according to somecharacteristic or attribute. For example, if subjects are classified accordingto gender (male or female), then the variable gender is qualitative. Other examples of qualitative variables arereligious preference and geographic locations. Quantitativevariables are numerical and can be […]

## Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research: What’s the Difference?

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research: What’s the Difference? There are two distinct types of data collection and study: qualitative and quantitative. Although both provide an analysis of data, they differ in their approach and the type of data they collect. Awareness of these approaches can help researchers construct their study and data collection methods. What Is […]

## Qualitative Vs Quantitative Methodology

Qualitative Vs Quantitative Methodology  In general, quantitative research seeks to understand the causal or correlational relationship between variables through testing hypotheses, whereas qualitative research seeks to understand a phenomenon within a real-world context through the use of interviews and observation. Both types of research are valid, and certain research topics are better suited to one approach or the other. […]

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