## Factor Analysis vs Path Analysis – The Difference

Factor analysis and path analysis are both statistical techniques used in the field of multivariate analysis, particularly in the context of structural equation modeling (SEM). While they share some similarities, they serve different purposes and have distinct methodologies. Factor Analysis: Purpose: Factor analysis is primarily used to identify underlying factors or latent variables that explain […]

## How to perform Heteroscedasticity test in STATA for time series data

Heteroskedastic means “differing variance” which comes from the Greek word “hetero” (‘different’) and “skedasis” (‘dispersion’). It refers to the variance of the error terms in a regression model in an independent variable. If heteroscedasticity is present in the data, the variance differs across the values of the explanatory variables and violates the assumption. This will […]

## How to Conduct Regression Analysis Using SPSS

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## Distribution Shapes

Distribution Shapes When one is describing data, it is important to be able to recognize the shapes of the distribution values. In later chapters, you will see that the shape of a distribution also determines the appropriate statistical methods used to analyze the data.A distribution can have many shapes, and one method of analyzing a […]

## What is a Histogram – Meaning and Examples

The Histogram The histogram is a graph that displays the data by using contiguous vertical bars (unless the frequency of a class is 0) of various heights to represent the frequencies of the classes. Construct a histogram to represent the data shown for the record high temperatures for each of the 50 states (see Example […]

## How to Write an Argumentative Essay: Examples & Tips

How to Write an Argumentative Essay: Examples & Tips Writing an argumentative essay involves presenting a well-supported argument in favor of a particular thesis statement. Whether you encounter this task in high school or at the university level, mastering the art of argumentation is crucial. This article provides a guide on how to write an […]

## 2nd Order Factors in Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)

2nd Order Factors Handling 2nd order factors in AMOS is not difficult, but it is tricky. And, if you don’t get it right, it won’t run. The pictures below offer a simple example of how you would model a 2nd order factor in a measurement model and in a structural model. The YouTube video tutorial […]

## Measurement Model Invariance in Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)

Measurement Model Invariance Before creating composite variables for a path analysis, configural, metric, and scalar invariance should be tested during the CFA to validate that the factor structure and loadings are sufficiently equivalent across groups, otherwise your composite variables will not be very useful (because they are not actually measuring the same underlying latent construct […]

## Common Method Bias (CMB) in Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)

Common Method Bias (CMB) REF: Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., Lee, J.Y., and Podsakoff, N.P. “Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies,” Journal of Applied Psychology (88:5) 2003, p 879. Common method bias refers to a bias in your dataset due to something external to the measures. Something external to the […]

## How to Conduct Measurement Model Assessment with SmartPLS

How to Conduct Measurement Model Assessment with SmartPLS Information examination plays a significant part in extricating significant bits of knowledge from investigate information, particularly in areas like social sciences, commerce, and promoting. Smart-PLS (Halfway Slightest Squares) could be a capable device commonly utilized for conducting auxiliary condition modeling (SEM) and is especially important for analyzing […]