## Factor Analysis vs Path Analysis – The Difference

Factor analysis and path analysis are both statistical techniques used in the field of multivariate analysis, particularly in the context of structural equation modeling (SEM). While they share some similarities, they serve different purposes and have distinct methodologies. Factor Analysis: Purpose: Factor analysis is primarily used to identify underlying factors or latent variables that explain […]

## How to do Mediation Analysis Using Multiple Regression Analysis

How to Testing Mediation Analysis with Regression Analysis Mediation analysis is a hypothesized causal chain in which one variable affects a second variable that, in turn,affects a third variable. The intervening variable, M, is the mediator. It “mediates” the relationship between a predictor, X, and an outcome. Graphically, mediation can be depicted in the following […]

## Importance of ethical considerations in a research

Ethical considerations form a major element in research. The researcher needs to adhere to promote the aims of the research imparting authentic knowledge, truth and prevention of error. Furthermore, following ethics enables scholars to deal collaborative approach towards their study with the assistance of their peers, mentors and other contributors to the study. This requires values […]

## Understanding the application of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)

Data is present everywhere in the digital world today. It has become complex to manage vast amounts of data. Today, there exists almost 100 zettabytes of digital data in the world. If used well, this data can produce valuable insights which can help companies and governments to predict future trends. Consequently, many statistical models have […]

## Limitations and weakness of qualitative research methods

In order to gain in-depth knowledge of underlying reasons and motivations, qualitative research is conducted. However, qualitative research also has limitations. In my previous article, I discussed the limitations of the quantitative research approach.  In this paper, I would be discussing the limitations with respect to qualitative research. Time-consuming process  The major drawback associated with qualitative cultural […]

## Examples of threats to the internal and external validity of a research

Threats to internal validity Timeline: Time is of paramount importance in research. The opinions of respondents depend on the recall time to gather opinions. For example, if the researcher asks the respondents about satisfaction with products at a coffee store and where they will consume it. Then the validity of their answers will increase. However, in case […]

## How to determine validity for quantitative research?

Measurement is a replicable and systematic process through which an object or instrument is quantified or classified as in the field of social science that deals with the quantification of behaviour. In this case, determining the validity of the measuring instrument (questionnaire) holds the utmost importance (Drost 2011). Consequently, measuring behaviours lead to the dilemma […]

## 8-step procedure to conduct qualitative content analysis in a research

A study by Ary et al. (1996) categorized qualitative research/method into two distinct forms. Firstly participant observation, where the researcher is a participant of the study. Secondly non-participant observation, where the researcher observes but does not participate. It is in this non-participant observation where one can use the content analysis approach. “A research method for […]

## How to establish the validity and reliability of qualitative research?

The validity and reliability of qualitative research represent the key aspects of the quality of research. When handled meticulously, the reliability and validity parameters help differentiate between good and bad research. They also assure readers that the findings of the study are credible and trustworthy. This aspect becomes particularly vital in case studies involving primary […]

## Calculation and relevance of t-statistic in the event study methodology

Statistical measures, particularly the T-statistic, serve as crucial tools in diverse research domains, including economics, finance, and genetics. The T-statistic plays a pivotal role in quantifying the significance of relationships between variables by comparing sample means to data variability. Its application enables researchers to discern whether observed associations are statistically meaningful or a result of […]

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